Technological Research

Technological Research
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which technological research, experiments, and measurement are performed. Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. As an engineering lab, Instructors laboratories builds and test technological devices.

About Us:

Instructor Labs utilizes technology in driver training simulation and Android's flexibility to innovate ways that aren't possible on other platforms by building a mobile App; At the same time publishing training manuals and study guides. Android's reach allows Instructor Labs to get the Training Program out to more people throughout the country, and the diversity of devices and networks means more affordable smart phones for more people. The Beta mobile App contains Facebook Posts, Images and Videos (Video illustrations and Audio Podcasts will be included). The key learning points and the tutorials offered will be reproduced in the mobile app as an aid to anyone learning to operate a vehicle together with a self-study guides. For more click on the link: K53 Training App

Mamphake Mabule
Program Developer | Instructor Labs

email |

mobile | +27733 14 1234

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Drone Regulation

South Africa’s new drone laws......New rules regulating the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems, popularly known as drones, have been signed by the Minister of Transport, Ms Dipuo Peters and was officially put into effect 1 July 2015.

The Director of Civil Aviation, Poppy Khoza said the SACAA, a member of the ICAO RPAS Panel, had engaged with a number of key role players operators, manufacturers, and other airspace users and after months of amendments, refining and incorporating requests by various stakeholders; a draft was finally sent to the Minister of Transport for review and approval on 5 May 2015.

The SACAA has in fact taken the lead in formulating its own recommended standards and practices, ahead of ICAO. “In the absence of guiding documents from ICAO, regulators such as ourselves have had to swiftly derive measures to address the regulation deficiency in
response to a growing demand to regulate this sector.” “The SACAA took into account the national safety and security needs. We also took into account the work done by ICAO thus far.

Here the most important things you need to know about the rules in accordance with part 101 of Civil Aviation regulations:

1. You need to have a CAA approved and valid remote pilot licence as well as a letter of approval to operate the drone.
2. The letter of approval will be valid for 12 months. While you do not need to have these documents when buying a drone, the seller will have to make you aware of the requirements as stipulated in the SACAA regulations.
3. Drones cannot fly more than 400ft or 120m above the ground, nor within in 10km of an aerodrome.
4. Drones cannot be flown within 50m above or close to a person or crowd of people, structure or building – without prior SACAA approval. Nor can you fly drones adjacent to or above:
- a nuclear power plant, prison, police station, crime scene, court of law and national key points.
5. The rules do apply to toy aircraft or unmanned free balloons or other types of aircraft which cannot be managed on a real-time basis during flight.
6. You cannot use a public road for the take-off or landing of a drone.
7. You cannot use a drone in adverse weather conditions, where your view of the drone is obstructed  since visual contact must be maintained with the RPA by the operator – unless in approved beyond visual line of sight or night operations.
8. Drones need to give way to all manned aircraft and should avoid passing over, under or in front of manned aircraft, unless it passes well clear and takes into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence.
9. RPA pilots will be required to tune into the air traffic services for the controlled airspace they will be flying the drone, reporting co-ordinates to said traffic controllers – all flight activity also needs to be recorded in a logbook.
10. Drones cannot be used to transport cargo or make deliveries
11. Drones cannot tow another aircraft, perform aerial or aerobatic displays or be flown in formation or swarm;
12. All incidents involving an RPA must be reported, especially where there is any injury to a person; damage to property; or destruction of the property.

Traffic Engineering

As a driving instructor and engineering draughtsman working with companies operating within mining environments, the first concern in providing a training program is safety and complying with Traffic Management Rules in place which specify the working areas. Background: Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways. It focuses mainly on research for safe and efficient traffic flow, such as road geometry, sidewalks and crosswalks infrastructure, traffic signs, road surface markings and traffic lights. Traffic engineering deals with the functional part of transportation system, except the infrastructures provided.

Now, Traffic management rules also provide the position of the working areas which may continually change due to operation of the mine, however as a minimum, the following must be specified as working areas: Any area where multiple items of mobile plant are operating.The operating area around an excavation at a quarry face, tip or stock piles and the traffic movement associated with it. The operating area around a dozer on a tip and the traffic movement associated with it. The  operating  area around a loading shovel(s) at quarry faces, tips or  stockpiles, processing and loading areas and the traffic movement associated with it.

Traffic Management should aim to reduce the risk associated with traffic movement, traffic management involves a large spread of measures including segregation of pedestrians and vehicles, segregation of light vehicles and quarry plant, car parking areas for visitors  and customers, instructions to vehicle operators to remain in their vehicles  at all times, maintenance schemes for vehicles, design and maintenance of roads, provision of required reversing aids, one-way systems, adequate signage and speed restrictions, driver training and competence, design of edge protection along roads and risk assessment of working are as and the  implementation of identified control measures.

It is important for the mine to provide sufficient parking spaces to allow for  employees, staff, site visitors and contractors and to ensure that any walk from the designated parking area can be carried out without exposing persons to quarry vehicle movements.

Vehicle Brake Testing:
A suitable inspection scheme should be in place to ensure brakes are in good condition at all times. The interval between brake testing is dependent  upon a number of factors such as vehicle type, vehicles history, road conditions and usage but should generally not exceed 6 monthly intervals. This is often combined with other maintenance work using electronic brake  efficiency meters. These meters are portable or can be permanently fixed into a vehicle, easy to use and produce a hard copy evidence of the test  results. Electronic brake testing of dumper trucks and loading shovels can indicate brake performance over a period of time and should indicate the  need for remedial action before any loss or failure of the braking system  occurs. 

These meters measure brake effort, which take into account the vehicle  speed and ground slope. The minimum brake performance for rubber tyre  machines is a brake efficiency of 28% for a loading shovel without payload  and 19% for ridged frame and articulated steer dump trucks with a machine mass over 32 tonne and tested with payload......


Choosing the Right Partner in Improving Your Productivity...

As people we are always on the lookout for a car that’s more fuel efficient, roads that are more durable, services that are more user friendly. ‘More’. That’s the theme of our lives in the new millennium. The quest to make everything ‘faster’, ‘larger’ or ‘stronger’ means that the focus is squarely on improving efficiencies and make the most of every bit of the resources available to us. A quick way to improve efficiencies and up our productivity is by employing the right tools at the right time. They say “Time is money.” If time is as important as money, isn’t it time you spent some money on managing both better?

Fuel Cell Innovations

A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction of positively charged hydrogen ions with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a continuous source of fuel and oxygen or air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemicals present in the battery react with each other to generate an electromotive force (emf). Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as these inputs are supplied.

The first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA space programs to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, automobiles, buses, boats, motorcycles and submarines.

There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte that allows positively charged hydrogen ions (or protons) to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. The anode and cathode contain catalysts that cause the fuel to undergo oxidation reactions that generate positively charged hydrogen ions and electrons. The hydrogen ions are drawn through the electrolyte after the reaction. At the same time, electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity. At the cathode, hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen react to form water.

As the main difference among fuel cell types is the electrolyte, fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use and by the difference in startup time ranging from 1 second for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM fuel cells, or PEMFC) to 10 minutes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Individual fuel cells produce relatively small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are "stacked", or placed in series, to create sufficient voltage to meet an application's requirements. In addition to electricity, fuel cells produce water, heat and, depending on the fuel source, very small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40–60%, or up to 85% efficient in cogeneration if waste heat is captured for use.

As of 2015, two fuel cell vehicles have been introduced for commercial lease and sale in limited quantities: Toyota and the Hyundai Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). Additional demonstration models include the Honda, and Mercedes-Benz. As of June 2011 demonstration FCEVs had driven more than 4,800,000 km (3,000,000 mi), with more than 27,000 refuelings. Demonstration fuel cell vehicles have been produced with "a driving range of more than 400 km (250 mi) between refueling". They can be refueled in less than 5 minutes.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technology Program claims that, as of 2011, fuel cells achieved 53–59% efficiency at one-quarter power and 42–53% vehicle efficiency at full power, and a durability of over 120,000 km (75,000 mi) with less than 10% degradation. In a Well-to-Wheels simulation analysis that "did not address the economics and market constraints", General Motors and its partners estimated that per mile traveled, a fuel cell electric vehicle running on compressed gaseous hydrogen produced from natural gas could use about 40% less energy and emit 45% less greenhouse gasses than an internal combustion vehicle. A lead engineer from the Department of Energy whose team is testing fuel cell cars said in 2011 that the potential appeal is that "these are full-function vehicles with no limitations on range or refueling rate so they are a direct replacement for any vehicle.

For instance, if you drive a full sized SUV and pull a boat up into the mountains, you can do that with this technology and you can't with current battery-only vehicles, which are more geared toward city driving." But the fuel cell market is growing, and Pike Research has estimated that the stationary fuel cell market will reach 50 GW by 2020.....

Rasberry Aviation

Being tired of assembling and disassembling parts/cables every time an electronics engineer went outside to fly his plane and he figured that he’d be better off building his own ground control station.

The core of the station is based on an old laptop with a broken screen he had laying around and an older laptop screen he had found. As the latter only accepted LVDS, an adapter that could generate theses signals from the standard laptop’s VGA output was needed. He therefore disassembled his laptop and fit all the parts in a Pelican case he bought, as well as a lead-acid battery, a 12V to 19V stepup converter (to power the laptop), temperature/voltage/current sensors with their displays, 40mm fans, an AC/DC converter to charge the battery and finally a UPS to allow uninterrupted use of the station when switching between power sources.

Because he didn’t have access to any machinery, PVC foam was used to maintain all the parts in place. Autonomy of his station is around 2.5hours on a single 12V 7Ah battery.....

“So … you really like drones?” - we’ve been getting this leading question a lot lately, often from friends and acquaintances who are mildly surprised that as engineers, we have shifted from sporadic articles about automoyibe safety to now stories about unmanned aerial systems or micro computing. Sometimes the questioners are excited about this shifts, because they themselves are tech enthusiasts and want to pick our brain on the topics. But more often than not, the question is posed in a tone that implies two follow-up questions: “Why did you choose to write so about drones?” and “Will you please stop writing so about drones?”

These are both valid questions. Now that we’re in the new year, we’d like to take a moment to address them. In many ways, 2015 was the Year of the Drone and the death of the Selfie: the year that unmanned aerial systems normalized to the point where you can now buy them at Makro, For example bought by people from all walks of life: kids, photographers, gadget enthusiasts, your neighbour. But for everyone who loves drones, we’d bet that there are at least 10 more people who find them deeply annoying, even alarming. Many of these naysayers are reacting negatively as much to the surrounding hype as to the drones themselves. The year 2015 has been the Year of the Drone, yes—but the title was not conferred by unanimous consent. The first licence was issued by the South African Civil Aviation Authority (SACAA) to Nicole Swart, making her the first person to receive such a licence in SA, the continent and most parts of the world, as many countries are still striving to come up with regulations to administer RPAS.

Before we talk about why people do like drones, it’s important to talk about why they don’t. For one thing, people dislike the recklessness with which many drone users have acted while flying their drones in public. If 2015 was the Year of the Drone, then it has also been a year of drone-related mishaps, largely thanks to untrained, inattentive, or heedless drone pilots. People don’t like being watched—or, more accurately, they don’t like feeling like they’re being watched. From the ground it can be hard to tell whether an overhead drone is or is not equipped with a camera, so most people just assume that the drone in question is an uninvited eye in the sky.

People don’t like being made to feel obsolete, and much of the pro-drone rhetoric centers around the many tasks that drones will soon be able to complete better and more efficiently than their human counterparts. Drones are the future of package delivery! (At least according to Amazon, a company that stands to make a lot of money if and when it convinces the world that drone delivery is both desirable and imminent.)The hype gets old. I understand. People don’t like being repeatedly told that something will change their lives when it’s clear that that change is by no means imminent. And we are guilty of hyping some of these things, too. But we do think drones will bring some fundamental changes in the way the world works. That’s why we like to report on the sector. And we think those changes will be more simple than you’d expect.

Stop and imagine the many ways in which an easily accessible, high-definition aerial viewpoint might expand your horizons—might make your life easier, or at least more interesting. Maybe it’s just something simple like getting a new vantage for family photographs, or letting you check and see what’s clogging your gutters without having to climb up on the roof. Maybe it’s something more complex, like giving farmers new ways to keep tabs on the performance and health of their crops, or inaugurating new methods of land surveying or resource management. And as drones continue to normalize and the underlying technology continues to improve, their users will find new and unexpected ways to use them. We’re still at the earliest stages here. In 2016, we hope that the world stops focusing so much on what drones might do in the future and takes a minute to recognize what they’re already doing right now. A camera-equipped drone gives people easy access to a camera angle that was heretofore inaccessible.

Saturday, July 2, 2016

Lesson Plans | Program


This concept was initiated in 2014 in partnership in order to address the need and the opportunity to leverage independent driving instructors in the driver education program. The concept has grown from simple school and the material has been a useful preparation tool in advance of practical driving lessons. This material can also be revisited at any time throughout learning to drive. Our lesson plans help outline the main rules and considerations for various topics.

The driver training curriculum covers around 40 lessons, varying from 15 to 25 minutes each with a total of 18hours for the Learenr's License Theory and 25hours for the Driver's License Practical tests. The most important characteristics of the curriculum:

Training Material cover a number of important functions in learning: A mobile app which provides support and gives advanced feedback to the student continuously. Student Assessment System generates detailed reports of student progress. Strength/Weakness analysis provides quick overview of strong points and weak points of skill development which has become a complete training program for driver training. The training material emphasizes safe driving and eco-driving. Highly configurable and easy to use user interface. As you may want to refer back to this app in the future why not add to your favorites list and tell a friend if you find this site helpful!

Tuesday, December 22, 2015

Motorcycle Rider Training

With motorcycle accidents on the rise and loss of lfe ever increasing, a positive effort is needed. Motorcycle accidents can be caused by various factors, from single to multiple vehicle; these factors are can be prevented through training. Our motorcycles and scooters are small and lightweight, so you can concentrate on learning the skills of safe riding. By attending one of our riding courses, learner rider will participate in detailed discussions related to the theory and physics of controlling the motorcycle and follow practical demonstrations under the watchful eye of an experienced instructor. 

NOTE: Never, under any circumstances, buy a motorcycle that
cannot keep up with traffic.
A major safety problem with motorcycles is other vehicles,
especially cars and trucks. Very often they really don’t see
you, although you are in plain sight. When driving in traffic,
their brain starts looking for other cars and trucks, and
completely ignores a motorcycle, scooter, or bicycle
because it does not conform to the appearance your brain
has sensitized itself to. They say, after they have run you
off the road or hit you, “But, officer, I didn’t see him!” And
they mean it. Their brain screened you out as not relevant
since you did not look like a car or truck.
This problem is compounded if your movement is such
that it does not conform to the rest of traffic. If you are
going slower than traffic (or faster) they are likely to miss
seeing you, and if they do, they are likely to assume you
are moving at the same speed as the rest of the traffic
and misjudge their actions around you
When I studied driving safety while cramming for my
license, back in 2000’s, I remember reading an
article about a study that showed that for every 10 km/h
per hour your speed differed from that of the traffic flow,
you doubled your chance of having an accident. This was
true for 10 km/h faster and ten km/h slower. If the traffic
is moving at 60, and you are going 50, you are twice as
likely to have an accident, and if you are only going 40,
you are 4 times as likely to have an accident.
So you have two considerations: one, drivers of cages
often don’t see you, and, two, going at a different speed
from the traffic flow increases your chance of accident.
Therefore, when you buy a motorcycle, make sure that you
can go at least fast enough to keep up with traffic......

K53 Motorcycle Rider Training Program

Overview of the Program

This is a practical exercise to teach the learner rider how to ride a motorcycle and consists of:
» a pre-trip inspection;
» a starting procedure; and
» a riding skills exercise.

The assessment is a measure of the motorcycle rider's:
» competence in handling a motorcycle;
» compliance with traffic rules, road signs and surface markings; and
» use of the K53 system of vehicle control.

Our program has been designed for riders of solo (two-wheeled) motorcycles, and not for three-wheeled (tricycle) or four-wheeled (quad-bike) motorcycles, nor for a motorcycle with a sidecar. During the program, you will not be allowed to smoke or use a cell phone.

Program Structure

Part One:
» pre-trip inspection of the motorcycle's roadworthiness;
» starting and stopping the engine;
» speed management and control;
» moving off and turning left;
» changing lane to the right; and
» stopping on an incline and then moving off, without rolling back.

Part Two:
» turning speed judgement (to the left and to the right);
» emergency stops;
» emergency swerves to the left and to the right; and
» stopping in a controlled manner.

Throughout the test, the following items will be marked with penalty points as necessary:
» violation of a traffic law;
» uncontrolled actions;
» dangerous actions;
» collisions; and
» mechanical failure.

Prior to the commencement of a manoeuvre, an instructor(s) will give the learner rider the instructions and explanation only when the motorcycle is stationary. Immediately after moving off, 

Full Day - For those who have never been on a race track before.
This includes:
  • All theory and practical lessons 
  • Personal interaction with a professional instructor 
  • Additional riding equipment 
  • A fully serviced, ready motorbike with fuel.